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It can be a Lisp development system, but with your customizations; or it can immediately perform some task of your design, making it a specialized tool rather than a general development system. In other words, you can develop any application you like by interactively modifying Clozure CL until it does what you want, then using save-application to preserve your changes in an executable image. On Mac OS X, the application builder uses save-application to create the executable portion of the application bundle. Double-clicking the application bundle runs the executable image created by save-application.

Examples of commonly-user macptr objects are Cocoa windows and other dynamically-allocated Mac OS system objects. Because a macptr object is a pointer into a foreign heap that exists for the lifetime of the running Lisp process, and because a saved image is used by loading it into a brand new Lisp process, saved macptr objects cannot be relied on to point to the same things when reconstituted from a saved image.

In fact, a restored macptr object might point to anything at all-for example an arbitrary location in the middle of a block of code, or a completely nonexistent virtual address. For that reason, save-application converts all macptr objects to dead-macptr objects when writing them to an image file. A dead-macptr is functionally identical to a macptr , except that code that operates on macptr objects distinguishes them from dead-macptr objects and can handle them appropriately-signaling errors, for example. Tthere is one exception to the conversion of macptr to dead-macptr objects: a macptr object that points to the address 0 is not converted, because address 0 can always be relied upon to refer to the same thing.

On all supported platforms, you can use save-application to create a command-line tool that runs very like any other command-line program does. Alternatively, if you choose not to prepend the kernel, you can save an image and then later run it by passing it as a command-line parameter to the ccl or ccl64 script.

1 Obtaining R

The function to be executed after startup is complete. The toplevel is a function of no arguments that performs whatever actions the lisp system should perform when launched with this image. If this parameter is not supplied, Clozure CL uses its default toplevel. The default toplevel runs the read-eval-print loop.

The pathname of a Lisp file to be loaded when the image starts up.

You can place initialization expressions in this file, and use it to customize the behavior of the Lisp system when it starts up. The error-handling mode for the saved image. The supplied value determines what happens when an error is not handled by the saved image. Valid values are :quit Lisp exits with an error message ; :quit-quietly Lisp exits without an error message ; or :listener Lisp enters a break loop, enabling you to debug the problem by interacting in a listener.

If you don't supply this parameter, the saved image uses the default error handler :listener. Normally you don't need to supply this parameter; save-application uses the class ccl:lisp-development-system. In some cases you may choose to create a custom application class; in that case, pass the name of the class as the value for this parameter. If true, ensures that CLOS caches are emptied before saving the image. Normally you don't need to supply this parameter, but if for some reason you want to ensure the CLOS caches are clear when the image starts up, you can pass any true value.

When true, calls in effect purify before saving the heap image. This moves certain objects that are unlikely to become garbage to a special memory area that is not scanned by the GC since it is expected that the GC wouldn't find anything to collect. If true, calls in effect impurify before saving the heap image.


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If both :impurify and :purify are true, first impurify is done, and then purify. Specifies the file to prepend to the saved heap image. A value of t means to prepend the lisp kernel binary that the lisp started with.


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Otherwise, the value of :prepend-kernel should be a pathname designator for the file to be prepended. If the prepended file is execuatable, its execute mode bits will be copied to the output file. This argument can be used to prepend any kind of file to the saved heap image. This can be useful in some special cases. On platforms where this isn't yet supported, a warning is issued and the option is ignored. This variable contains a list of 0-argument functions that will be called before saving a heap image. Users may add functions to this list as needed.

This variable contains a list of 0-argument functions that will be called after restoring a saved heap image. This variable contains a list of 0-argument functions that will be called before quitting the lisp. Note that save-application quits the lisp, so any functions on this list will be invoked before saving a heap image.

This variable contains a list of 0-argument functions that will be called after starting the lisp. Multiple fasl files can be concatenated into a single file. The single file might be easier to distribute or install, and loading it may be slightly faster than loading the individual files since it avoids the overhead of opening and closing each file in succession. This function reads the fasl files specified by the list fasl-files and combines them into a single fasl file named output-file.

The :if-exists keyword argument is interpreted as in the standard function open. Loading the concatenated fasl file has the same effect as loading the invidual input fasl files in the specified order.

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The pathname-type of the output file and of each input file defaults to the current platform's fasl file type see Platform-specific filename conventions. If any of the input files has a different type an error will be signaled, but fasl-concatenate doesn't otherwise try too hard to verify that the input files are real fasl files for the current platform. On bit platforms, single-floats are immediate values like fixnums and characters. Floating-point exceptions are generally enabled and detected.

By default, threads start up with overflow, division-by-zero, and invalid enabled, and the rounding mode is set to nearest. The functions set-fpu-mode and get-fpu-mode provide user control over floating-point behavior. Return the state of exception-enable and rounding-mode control flags for the current thread. If mode is supplied, it should be one of the keywords :rounding-mode , :overflow , :underflow , :division-by-zero , :invalid , or :inexact.

The value of corresponding control flag is returned. One of :nearest , :zero , :positive , or :negative. If t , the floating-point exception is signaled. If nil , it is masked. Sets the current thread's exception-enable and rounding-mode control flags to the indicated values for arguments that are supplied, and preserves the values assoicated with those that aren't supplied. In Clozure CL 1.

For each source form, it can report one of three possible outcomes:.

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Partly covered: This form was entered, and some parts were executed and some weren't. While the information gathered for coverage of generated code is complete and precise, the mapping back to source forms is of necessity heuristic, and depends a great deal on the behavior of macros and the path of the source forms through compiler transforms. Source information is not recorded for variables, which further limits the source mapping. In practice, there is often enough information scattered about a partially covered function to figure out which logical path through the code was taken and which wasn't.

Sometimes the situation can be improved by modifying macros to try to preserve more of the input forms, rather than destructuring and rebuilding them. Because the code coverage information is associated with compiled functions, code coverage information is not available for load-time toplevel expressions. You can work around this by creating a function and calling it. In order to gather code coverage information, you first have to recompile all your code to include code coverage instrumentation.

The compilation process will be many times slower than normal, and the fasl files will be many times bigger. When you execute functions loaded from instrumented fasl files, they will record coverage information every time they are executed. You can examine that information by calling ccl:report-coverage or ccl:coverage-statistics.

While recording coverage, you can collect incremental coverage deltas between any two points in time. This hash table can then be passed to ccl:report-coverage , ccl:incremental-coverage-svn-matches or ccl:incremental-coverage-source-matches. If non-nil the default , this will generate an HTML report, consisting of an index file in output-file and, in the same directory, one html file for each instrumented source file that has been loaded in the current session.

If non-nil, this should be a hash table mapping arbitrary keys tags to incremental coverage deltas. The HTML report will show a list of tags, and allow selection of an arbitrary subset of them to show the coloring and statistics for coverage by that subset. If non-nil the default , a comma-separated file is generated with the summary of statistics. You can specify a filename for the statistics argument, otherwise statistics.

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See documentation of coverage-statistics below for a description of the values in the statistics file. If you've loaded foo. Gets rid of the information about which instrumented files have been loaded, so ccl:report-coverage will not report any files, and ccl:save-coverage-in-file will not save any info, until more instrumented files are loaded.

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